Ink Examination

To help the document examiner support her opinion satisfactorily to the court, provide her with as many valid exemplars as possible at the beginning of the case. Exemplars, also called standards, are legally admissible authentic samples of handwriting used for comparison with questioned writing. They are used by the document examiner to enable her to form an opinion concerning the authenticity of handwriting in dispute. There are two kinds of exemplars informal which are documents previously executed and known to be genuine and formal which are request writing samples. Exemplars are also called known handwriting samples. Handwriting identification depends on the quality of the known writing. One of the most important steps in the investigation of suspected or disputed writing is the procurement of sufficient genuine writing samples. Legal advisers and investigating officers must be able to anticipate the document examiner’s needs in the way of comparative material. Sufficient suitable material facilitates the work of the expert in establishing the master pattern or habits of the writer in order to avoid errors and inconclusions.

Questioned document examination

Emily J. Forensic Document Examiner. Albuquerque, NM. Questions about the legitimacy of documents are probably as old as documents themselves. Here are some interesting cases in questioned document history, followed by a bibliography for interested readers. In a Mr.

As a result, many forensic scientists have investigated the issue of dating documents. Every book about document analysis has a chapter or paragraph about the.

Follow me:. About the Expert Offices: San Luis Obispo, CA-GFS is a private forensic lab, specializing in ink dating, forensic ink dating, ink age, questioned documents, fraud, forgery, art age determination, ink, paper, handwriting, fingerprints, counterfeiting, piracy, crime scenes, Daubert and court preparation. Full service document laboratory. We offer a first rate and on-call response to any investigative situation that you may encounter.

Our commitment is to provide clients with effective, timely, cost effective services by use of experienced forensic and investigative teams. We are a proud firm. We have successfully completed a myriad of forensic examinations and investigations for our clients, worldwide, for the past 35 years. Stewart has worked for the U. Government as a forensic scientist for over 25 years. During his career he has worked on many notable cases to include; the Unabomber, numerous accused Nazi war criminals, e.

John Demjanjuk, a. Ivan the Terrible, the reinvestigation of the Dr. He has testified as an expert witness in state, federal and military courts of law, as well as in foreign court systems to include; Austria, Australia, Canada, Germany, Sri Lanka and Thailand. He has also testified at The Hague in the Netherlands and three times before the U.

Ink Dating

Can an examination be conducted of a signature or handwriting from only a photocopy? Yes, but if it is possible to obtain the original it allows a more thorough examination of the document and the circumstances of its production. The possibility of a tracing of a machine copy transfer forgery cannot be ruled out. Is it possible to date pencil or typewritten documents?

Yes, in some cases.

View Aginsky Forensic Document Dating Laboratory () location in Michigan, United States, revenue, industry and description.

Forensic document examiners are an essential part of the success of the forensic science community. Their main responsibility is examining written, typed, or printed documents using a scientific methodology and equipment. Their essential responsibilities go beyond evaluating different documents. They prepare demonstrative exhibits, write expert reports, and state their opinions regarding the documents which are being analyzed.

This means they testify in court proceedings if the case goes to trial. Forensic document examiners can be found in local, state, and federal crime laboratories.

Chemical Ink Dating

To conduct further searches of the collection, visit the Virtual Library. See the Obtain Documents page for direction on how to access resources online, via mail, through interlibrary loans, or in a local library. Browse By Topics. Find in a Library You have clicked.

Forensic Document Examiners, Vol. 1, No. 1, , pp. ABSTRACT: A sketch of several analytical methods for dating. documents is.

The visual appearance of inks is only one clue to their composition. Sometimes two inks can look identical to the naked eye but further tests may be able to distinguish between them. Where possible non-destructive tests are used. For example inks can be examined using infra red or ultraviolet reflectance at various wavelengths or using visible light but examining emissions from the ink in the infra red area of the spectrum infra red luminescence. Our examiners use an instrument known as a VSC HR to carry out non-destructive specialised lighting examinations.

Inks may also be distinguished by other more complex chemical tests but these are likely to be destructive to some extent. Differentiating inks can be important in cases where a document is suspected of having been altered. A classic example is where a zero is added to a cheque making the value ten times as much. The ‘dating‘ of inks is a hugely complex area and depends to a large extent on the conditions used to store the document that bears the ink.

Many factors affect the apparent ageing of ink including: exposure to light, heat, humidity and thickness of ink line. For these reasons a direct dating of ink lines is seldom carried out by this Laboratory. Dating The ‘dating‘ of inks is a hugely complex area and depends to a large extent on the conditions used to store the document that bears the ink. Country Worldwide Country Worldwide.


For 18 years, a man who murdered his entire family successfully eluded the FBI. This episode describes how investigators used both art and forensic science to catch the killer, John List. A couple goes on a trip to Ocean City, Maryland, where they encounter another couple and disappear. On a September night in , Dianne Keidel met a friend for a drink, and afterward, she disappeared.

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But this technique is also able to overcome other stumbling blocks relating to the amount of ink deposited when writing and the type of paper used, as these variables hamper the dating of a document by means of traditional methods. What is more, the new technique reduces the number of punctures needed to analyse the writing on a document to just one.

Determining the age of a document to find out whether it is authentic is a task influenced by the type of paper on which it has been written, the pressure of the stroke -the amount of ink deposited when the writing was done- or even the technique used. Until now, document dating methods have been able to indicate whether the writing was relatively new less than 90 days or older over two years , yet this chronological accuracy is insufficient in certain cases, above all in judicial ones.

Each document was produced at different moments using a different ink stroke pressure, factors that may alter the results and lead to dating errors. During the natural ageing process of each sample, which had a known age, the research team analysed the evolution in the various volatile components. When analysing the kinetics involved in its disappearance, the research group established a pattern that links the state of the ink with the time that has elapsed.

Corporate Forensic Investigations

Do you want to see when a document was really created, and by whom? With the application of advanced digital forensic techniques, we can decipher the digital evidence you require for legal proceedings. Utilising our digital forensic capabilities, we can determine the legitimacy of emails, messages, photographs and various other electronic documents by examining the metadata of each file in question and provide detailed information such as:.

Our team of document evidence analysts and digital forensic experts come from a variety of high integrity technical investigative backgrounds including law enforcement, military, academic and cyber security. This combined experience allows CYFOR to provide a leading digital evidence investigative service, backed by a dedicated quality management department that operates to ISO accreditations.

This ensures that our clients receive the utmost quality of service and professionalism that is expected while meeting standards that can be relied upon in court.

Creation date. Why instruct us? As a leading authority in digital forensics, CYFOR has vast experience in document analysis & authentication for criminal.

Enter your mobile number or email address below and we’ll send you a link to download the free Kindle App. Then you can start reading Kindle books on your smartphone, tablet, or computer – no Kindle device required. To get the free app, enter your mobile phone number. During his career, Brunelle published approximately 50 scientific publications, including a textbook on the Forensic Examination of Ink and Paper, a chapter in a Handbook of Forensic Sciences, and a chapter in an Encyclopedia of Forensic Sciences.

He was the recipient of the John A. Dondero Memorial Award, presented to him by the International Association for Identification for developing the first capability in the United States for dating inks. This was the first professional association in the world for forensic ink chemists. Kenneth R.

Document Analysis: A Summary of Possibilities – Expert Article

There are typically two different forensic methods for ink dating. With this method the forensic analysis determines the components in the ink, compares them against a library of standards and then allows an opinion regarding the first date that particular ink was manufactured commercially available. The dynamic approach is very useful in determining if a pen ink was placed on a document on its purported date, i.

There are only a handful of forensic scientists capable of performing these tests and laboratories equipped with the proper tools.

Is it possible to date pencil or typewritten documents? Yes, in some cases. Is it possible to determine when a questioned document was produced? Yes, through​.

To browse Academia. Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Papers People. Handwritten Signature is used as an identification mark for a person. Signature contains intrinsic handwriting characteristics which are produced after a long practice of peculiar formation and adaptation to needs and abilities.

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In this article, Forensic Document Examiner, Mark Songer provides an overview of the cases where forensic document examination can be applied, the techniques and technologies used, and standards that exist in the field. In , an intruder broke into the home of an elderly couple living in California. The couple was robbed, beaten, and forced to write checks from their personal account before being murdered. The suspect denied having anything to do with the murders.

[Entomology and Forensic Medicine. Time of Death Dating From Photographic Documents]. Rev Med Liege. May 1;48(5) [Article in French].

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Forensic Document Examiner Seattle

The uk. Find a. China university of dating. Wills, many forensic methods for document examination. Find scientific evidence science, with a forensic science discipline in ink dating: a key area in my area! These are aware that forensic scientists have known conditions, handwriting analysis handwriting analysis: applications and written communication skills including visual and date?

Journal: International Journal of Forensic Document Examiners Volume:5 Dated:​December/January Pages Editor(s): Joel S. Harris. Date Published​.

Questioned material may consist of identification cards, contracts, wills, titles and deeds, seals, stamps, bank checks, handwritten correspondence, machine-generated documents such as those from photocopiers, fax machines, and printers , currency and electronic documents. In some circumstances, graffiti and digital signatures may be examined; however, the client should be aware that the examination of these types of evidence can be problematic.

Even documents that were shredded or burned may prove useful if reconstructed. In digital documents, evidence could even be culled from the metadata of electronic signature files, providing information such as who the author is and when the document was written. When conducting examinations, forensic document examiners must have known specimens to which they compare the material in question. These samples may come from any number of known sources, such as a particular ink manufacturer or machine.

In cases involving handwriting, samples are usually divided into two types: requested writing specimens and collected writing specimens. Requested specimens are writings dictated by the investigator to the writer.

Inside the Questioned Document Unit